Protest / Collective Action
Although people sometimes accept inequality, and sometimes see it is legitimate, when inequality is seen as unfair it is often opposed. We have been examining for some time the emotional and other bases of disagreeing with – and protesting against – inequality seen as unfair. We are interested in “protest from below” (from the disadvantaged) as well as “protest from above” (from the advantaged). However, the advantaged and the disadvantaged seem to protest for somewhat different reasons and in somewhat different ways.
Opposing Illegitimate Inequality
- Iyer. A., & Leach, C. W. (2009). Helping disadvantaged out-groups challenge unjust inequality: The role of group-based emotions. In Stürmer, S. & Snyder, M. (Eds.), The psychology of prosocial behavior: Group processes, intergroup relations, and helping (pp. 337-353). Oxford, UK: Blackwell-Wiley.
- Harth, N.S., Kessler, T., & Leach, C.W. (2008) Advantaged group’s emotional reactions to inter-group inequality: The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 115-129.
- Leach, C.W., Iyer, A., & Pedersen, A. (2007). Angry opposition to government redress: When the structurally advantaged perceive themselves as relatively deprived. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 191-204.
- Leach, C.W., Iyer, A., & Pedersen, A. (2006). Anger and guilt about in-group advantage explain the willingness for political action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1232-1245.
- Iyer. A., Leach, C. W. & Pedersen, A. (2004). Racial wrongs and restitutions: The role of guilt and other group-based emotions. In N. Branscombe & B. Doosje (Eds.), Collective Guilt: International Perspectives (pp. 262-283). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Leach, C. W., Snider, N., & Iyer, A. (2002). “Spoiling the consciences of the fortunate”: The experience of relative advantage and support for social equality. In I. Walker & H. J. Smith (Eds.), Relative deprivation: Specification, development, and integration (pp. 136-163). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anger and Efficacy as Routes
- van Zomeren, M., Leach, C.W., & Spears, R. (2012). Protesters as “passionate economists”: A dynamic dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 180–199.
- van Zomeren, M., Spears, R. & Leach, C.W. (2010). Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the climate crisis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 339-346.
- van Zomeren, M., Leach, C.W., & Spears, R. (2010). Does Group Efficacy Increase Group Identification? Resolving their Paradoxical Relationship. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46,1055-1060.
- van Zomeren, M., Spears, R., Fischer, A., & Leach, C.W. (2004). Put your money where your mouth is! Explaining collective action tendencies through group-based anger and group efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 649-664.
- van Zomeren, M., Leach, C.W., & Spears, R. (2012).... A dynamic dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage.